Annotated Bibliography In Apologetics, Religious Pluralism, and new Religious Movements - 2003

  • Nov 30, 2002
  • Series: Volume 6 - 2003

Douglas Groothuis, Ph.D., Denver Seminary

This list makes no claim to be exhaustive. Some books are listed more than once if they fit under more than one category.

I. RECOMMENDED BOOKS IN CHRISTIAN APOLOGETICS

A. Recommended reference and general books in philosophy and apologetics
  1. Audi, Robert, ed. The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (Cambridge, 1995; second ed., 1999). Excellent, thorough, one-volume reference work.
  2. Craig, Edward, ed. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York: Routledge, 1998. Best contemporary, in-depth, multi-volume reference work. Available in the library. Also comes in a one-volume, condensed edition.
  3. Edwards, Paul, ed. The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York: Collier-Macmillan. 1967. Classic for the time period, but shows a prejudice against Christianity, which is not as pervasive in more recent works, such as The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy or Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  4. Evans, C. Stephen. Pocket Dictionary of Apologetics and Philosophy of Religion. Downers Grove: IL: InterVarsity Press, 2002. Excellent short reference. Ideal for those with little or no background in these areas.
  5. Flews, Anthony, ed. Dictionary of Philosophy, revised second ed. (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1984). A shorter work helpful for those with little philosophical background.
  6. Geisler, Norman. Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics. Baker Books, 1999. This must be used with caution. No one person can cover this much material at a high level of quality. Explicitly philosophical topics are often addressed better in other works. (For instance, the entry on "Alvin Plantinga" is inadequate.) However, there is much helpful material, such as the essay on prophecy, the problem of evil, the virgin birth, etc.
  7. Kreeft, Peter and Ronald Tacelli. Handbook of Christian Apologetics (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1994). Well-written, witty, covers many important topics fairly briefly. Defects include their view of salvation in other religions and an ill-fated attempt to downplay that theological differences between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism. The authors are Roman Catholic.
  8. Weston, Anthony. A Rulebook for Arguments, third edition (Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2001). A concise guide to philosophical argumentation in writing papers. It is not written from a Christian perspective, and takes even some shots at Christianity; but a helpful resource, nevertheless. This book will help students with no background in philosophy to learn how to write philosophical papers
  9. American Philosophical Society Home page: http://www.apa.udel.edu/apa. Not an apologetics cite by any means, but much helpful material about the profession of philosophy and the state of the discipline.
B. Recommended scholarly journals that often address questions of apologetics
  1. Faith and Philosophy. The Journal of the Society of Christian philosophers.
  2. Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society. Carries mostly articles on biblical studies and theology, but some material on apologetics.
  3. Philosophia Christi. Journal of the Evangelical Philosophical Society.
  4. Religious Studies.
  5. Sophia.
C. General Books on Christian Apologetics

The following books cover a variety of topics, as I try to explain in the annotation. They also fill out the spectrum of intellectual difficulty (not overall quality) from basic (B) to intermediate (I) to advanced (A). (I)/(A) means: "intermediate to advanced" or "between intermediate and advanced."

  1. Archer, Gleason. Encyclopedia of Biblical Difficulties. Grand Rapids, Baker, 1982. A respected Old Testament scholar assesses the major problem passages in both Testaments. (I)
  2. Blamires, Harry. The Christian Mind. Servant Publications, 1997; orig. pub., 1963. Although some aspects of the author's high Anglicanism won't suit some evangelicals, Blamires laments the lack of a Christian mind, outlines its essence, and contrasts it with secular thinking. A classic. (I)
  3. Blomberg, Craig. The Historical Reliability of the Gospels. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1987. Classic modern defense. (I)/(A)
  4. Blomberg, Craig. The Historical Reliability of John. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2002. Major modern defense of the reliability of John. (I)/(A)
  5. Burson, Scott R. and Jerry L. Walls. C.S. Lewis and Francis Schaeffer: Lessons for a New Century from the Most Influential Apologists of Our Time. Grand Rapids, MI: InterVarsity Press, 1998. Good exposition of both thinkers, but the author's like things in Lewis that lean in a more liberal direction and do not like Schaeffer's Calvinism very much. Nevertheless, it is worthwhile overall. See my longish review at Denver Journal: http://www.denverseminary.edu/dj/articles1999/0500/0501 (I)
  6. Carnell, Edward John. An Introduction to Christian Apologetics. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1948. Pioneering work in the "cumulative case method" of apologetics. The first book by a brilliant young leader of the then young evangelical movement. (I)
  7. Carroll, Vincent and David Shiflett. Christianity on Trial: Arguments Against Anti-Religious Bigotry. San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2001. My comments from the back cover: "This important and well-written book convincingly argues that Christianity has not been bad news for civilization-despite popular cliches, half-truths, and outright lies to the contrary. It presents a strong case that Christian ideals are behind many beneficial aspects of culture, including an appreciate of science and education, equality before the law, universal suffrage, the structure of American government, and more."
  8. Carson, D. A., ed. Telling the Truth. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2000. Collection of essays on reaching postmodern culture. Especially excellent are essays by Carson and Ajith Fernando. (I)
  9. Carson, D.A. The Gagging of God: Christianity Confronts Pluralism. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1996. (I) Comprehensive biblical and theological critique of pluralistic theologies.
  10. Chesterton, G. K. Orthodoxy. Many editions. Classic defense of orthodoxy against heresy and confusion. Rare wit and insight from 1908. Available in various editions. (I)
  11. Chesterton, G. K. Everlasting Man. Image Books. Important, witty, and wise apologetic work that influenced C.S. Lewis considerably. (I)
  12. Clark, David. Dialogical Apologetics. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1994. An approach that highlights the person-sensitive and relational aspects of apologetic argument. (I)
  13. Clark, Gordon. A Christian View of Men and Things. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1953. Attempts to deduce Christian perspectives on various issues with a focus on epistemology. (I)
  14. Clark, Gordon. Thales to Dewey: A History of Philosophy. Trinity Foundation. First published by a secular publisher as a textbook, this history, which focuses on epistemology, has an implicit apologetic for Christian theism. It is one of the rare books of its kind to discuss Jesus' philosophy as well. A worthy reference. Republished by the Trinity Foundation in several editions. (I)
  15. Clark, Kelly James, ed. Philosophers Who Believe. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993. Important Christian philosophers, such as Alvin Plantinga, Stephen T. Davis, and Nicholas Wolterstorff, explain why they believe in Christianity.
  16. Copan, Paul, ed. Will the Real Jesus Please Stand Up? Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1998. A debate between William Lane Craig and John Crosson, with responses by others (including Craig Blomberg) on both sides of the issue. (I)
  17. Copan, Paul. Ronald Tacelli, eds. Jesus' Resurrection: Fact or Fiction? Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2000. Debate between William Lane Craig and Gerd Ludeman with responses by others on both sides of the issue. (I)
  18. Corduan, Winfried. Neighboring Faiths: A Christian Introduction to World Religions. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1998. Includes an important chapter on Native American religion, a topic not usually covered in these sorts of volumes. (I)
  19. Corduan, Winfried. No Doubt About it (Nashville, TN: Broadman, Holman, 1997). An excellent and wide-ranging work of apologetics. Readable and challenging. (B)/(I)
  20. Cowan, Steven, ed. Five Views of Apologetics. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1999. Presentations and critiques from William Lane Craig (Classical apologetics), Gary Habermas (Evidentialism); Paul Feinberg (Cumulative Case Method); John Frame (Presuppositionalism); and Kelly James Clark (Reformed Epistemology). See my review of this book in the Denver Journal at: http://www.denverseminary.edu/dj/articles2000/0400/0401 (A).
  21. Craig, William Lane. Reasonable Faith: Christian Truth and Apologetics. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 1994. Excellent and thorough treatment by a leading Christian philosopher. Nothing on the problem of evil or creation-evolution, however. (I)/(A)
  22. Dembski, William, ed. Mere Creation: Science, Faith, and Intelligent Design. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1998. Path-breaking material from a major conference on intelligent design. Contributions from Phillip Johnson, Michael Behe, and other notables. (I)/(A)
  23. Dembski, William. Intelligent Design. Downers Grove, InterVarsity Press, 1999. Major statement of the theory behind the Intelligent Design Movement. (I)/(A).
  24. Downing, David. Most Reluctant Convert: C.S. Lewis's Journey to Faith. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2002. Excellent assessment of the reasons why Lewis moved from atheism to Christianity. It thus has biographical and apologetic significance. (I)
  25. Edwards, Paul. Reincarnation: A Critical Examination. New York: Prometheus Books, 1996. Edwards is an atheist, so some of his arguments against reincarnation (such as, the mind cannot exist apart from the body) also cut against Christian beliefs in the afterlife. Nevertheless, the arguments specifically against karma and previous lives are applicable to Christian apologetics. (I)
  26. Evans, C. Stephen. Philosophy of Religion. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1985. Excellent nonsimplistic introduction to the subject offering many important apologetic points. (I)
  27. Erickson, Millard. Truth or Consequences. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2001. Thorough and careful assessment of postmodernism. One of the best evangelical treatments available.
  28. Geisler, Norman and Paul Hoffman, eds. Why I Am A Christian: Leading Christians Explain Why They Believe. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2001. Very good contributions overall by top-notch scholars, such as William Lane Craig, Gary Habermas, and Hugh Ross, on a variety of standard apologetic topics. (B)/(I)
  29. Geisler, Norman and Abdul Saleeb. Answering Islam. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1993. Examines Islam theologically and historically and gives apologetic arguments against its claims to usurp Christianity. (I)
  30. Geisler, Norman. Christian Apologetics. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1976. Gives extensive attention to apologetic methodology, assesses non-Christian worldviews, and develops a neo-Thomist approach to defending evangelical Christianity.
  31. Geivett, Douglas R. and Gary R. Habermas, eds. In Defense of Miracles: A Comprehensive Case for God's Action in History. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1977. Excellent contributions from leading scholars, such as William Lane Craig, Stephen T. Davis, and David Clark, on all the important aspects of the question of miracles. (I)
  32. Groothuis, Douglas. Unmasking the New Age: Is There a New Religious Movement Trying to Transform Society? Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1986. An exposition and analysis of New Age thinking now somewhat dated. Nevertheless, it still addresses the main themes of what is now called "the new spirituality" or just "spirituality." (I)
  33. Groothuis, Douglas. Confronting the New Age: How to Resist a Growing Religious Movement. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1988. An apologetic and action-oriented approach to addressing the New Age worldview and its social manifestations. (I)
  34. Groothuis, Douglas. Christianity That Counts: Being a Christian in a NonChristian World. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1994. A collection of essays on ethics, culture, and apologetics. Includes important chapters by Rebecca Merrill Groothuis on abortion and worship. (B)/(I)
  35. Groothuis, Douglas. Are All Religions One? Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1996. Booklet comparing Christianity, Islam, and nondualist Hinduism in order to show that religions are not all one. (B)/(I).
  36. Groothuis, Douglas. Jesus in an Age of Controversy. Eugene, OR; Wipf and Stock reprint, 2002. Defends the biblical view against mostly New Age alternatives. Out of print in US; but available at Denver Seminary Bookstore and from Kingsway publishers in UK. (I)
  37. Groothuis, Rebecca Merrill. Women Caught in the Conflict: The Culture War Between Traditionalism and Feminism. Wipf and Stock reprint, 1997. An award-winning and rationally rigorous analysis of the logic of the gender debate in the church. (I)
  38. Groothuis, Rebecca Merrill. Good News for Women: A Biblical Picture of Gender Equality. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1997. A careful treatment of the theology and hermeneutics of the gender debate. Important material for apologetics given our culture's view of Christianity as anti-women. (I)
  39. Guinness, Os. The Dust of Death. Crossway, 1994. Originally published in 1973 (by InterVarsity) and now updated, this study of the philosophy of the counterculture still has apologetic value in its critique of secular humanism and Eastern mysticism. (I)
  40. Guinness, Os. The Gravedigger File. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1983. Explains the social conditions-privatization, pluralization, secularization-that tend to impede Christian witness. Written in a kind of Screwtape Letters format. Takes important material from the sociology of religion and makes it more accessible. (I).
  41. Guinness, Os. Fit Bodies, Fat Minds. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1994. A short by powerful assessment of anti-intellectualism in American evangelicalism and what can be done about it. (I)
  42. Guinness, Os. God in the Dark. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1994. Classic treatment of the problem of doubt in the Christian life. Originally published by InterVarsity Press as In Two Minds. (I)
  43. Guinness, Os. Long Journey Home. Colorado Springs, CO: Waterbrook, 2001. A rare apologetics book oriented toward the person who has some inkling that there is something more to life, but is not yet drawn to Christianity. (B)
  44. Guinness, Os. A Time for Truth. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2000. Short, but cogent critique of the postmodern loss of truthfulness and a call to restoration. (I)
  45. Habermas, Gary. The Historical Jesus. Joplin, MO: College Press, 1996. Excellent on historical and extra-biblical evidence for Jesus. (I)
  46. Halverson, Dean, ed. Compact Guide to World Religions. Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers, 1996. Excellent introductory exposition and apologetic engagement on major religions. Supplemental apologetic material also. (B)
  47. Henry, Carl F. H. God, Revelation, and Authority. 6 volumes. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 1999. This monumental, erudite, and wide-ranging work of philosophical theology covers many pertinent apologetic topics. Written by a pivotal evangelical intellectual who helped spark and sustain modern evangelicalism. (I)/(A)
  48. Jenkins, Philip. Hidden Gospels: How the Search for Jesus Lost Its Way. Oxford University Press, 2001. A critical look at the impetus behind the reconstructions of Jesus by liberal scholars. See my review in The Christian Research Journal, on line at www.equip.org. (I)
  49. Johnson, Phillip E. Darwin on Trial, revised ed. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993. A penetrating critique of naturalistic theories of macro-evolution on the basis of the logical and evidential problems with the theory itself. (I)
  50. Johnson, Phillip E. Reason in the Balance: The Case Against Naturalism in Science, Law, and Education. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1995. Traces the wider implications of naturalism and its philosophical problems. (I)
  51. Johnson, Phillip E. Defeating Darwinism by Opening Minds. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1997. Simplified version of Darwin on Trial with an emphasis on spotting logical problems in Darwinism. (B)
  52. Johnson, Phillip E. Objections Sustained. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1998. Collection of essays on evolution and culture. (I)
  53. Johnson, Phillip E. The Wedge of Truth. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2000. Explains the rationale of the Intelligent Design Movement's attempt to overthrow the domination of naturalism in modern science. (I)
  54. Keener, Craig and Glenn Usry. Defending Black Faith: Answers to Tough Questions About African-American Christianity. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1997. A follow-up volume to Black Man's Religion (see below). (I)
  55. Kierkegaard, Soren. The Sickness Unto Death. Kierkegaard is not usually considered an apologist, at least of the traditional sort. He was in some ways a fideist. However, this masterful book gives a kind of psychological apologetic for the Christian view of sin-an account that was pivotal in my own conversion. This book read me in 1976. (A)
  56. Lewis, C.S. Mere Christianity. Many editions. Good on the moral argument and the deity of Jesus; weak on some theological points, such as the atonement. Marvelously written, of course. (B)/(I)
  57. Lewis, C.S. The Abolition of Man. MacMillan, 1947. Brilliant attack on relativistic naturalism. (I)
  58. Lewis, C.S. Miracles: A Preliminary Study. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc, 1978. A classic study of the supernaturalism of Christianity in relation to naturalism and pantheism. (I)
  59. Lewis, C.S. God in the Dock. (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1970). Superior collection of essays, many related to apologetics. (I) See especially the essay, "Christian Apologetics."
  60. Lewis, Gordon. Testing Christianity's Truth Claims. University Press of America, 1990. An excellent analysis of various modern apologetic methodologies, with special emphasis on E. J. Carnell. (I)
  61. McGrath, Alister E. Intellectuals Don't Need God and Other Modern Myths. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1993. A generally helpful approach to modern apologetics and much better than A Passion for Truth, which I critique in my book, Truth Decay. (B)/(I)
  62. Montgomery, John Warwick. Faith Founded on Fact. 1978. Montgomery is one of the leading evidentialist apologists with a long and distinguished career of debates and publications. An excellent collection of essays.
  63. Moreland, J.P. Love Your God With All Your Mind. Colorado Springs: NavPress, 1997. Excellent introduction to developing a Christian mind, with many practical suggestions (about the church and personal spiritual disciplines) as well as philosophical arguments. (I)
  64. Moreland, J.P. Christianity and the Nature of Science. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1989. High-level work on the relationship of philosophy of science and the Christian worldview. Excellent material on how the biblical view of creation is not unscientific. (I)/(A)
  65. Morris, Thomas V., ed. God and the Philosophers: The Reconciliation of Faith and Reason. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Collection of essays by leading philosophers, such as Arthur Holmes and George Mavrodes, who are also theists (mostly Christians), which addresses the rationality of theism and Christianity.
  66. Murray, Michael J., ed. Reason for the Hope Within. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1999. Collection of essays on apologetics written by younger Christian philosophers. Many of the essays tend to be a bit timid apologetically, but it is encouraging and instructive to find Christian philosophers early in their careers joining the apologetic cause. See my review of his book at http://www.denverseminary.edu/dj/articles2001/0400/0401. (I)
  67. Netland, Harold. Dissonant Voices: Christians and Religious Pluralism. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1991. Excellent discussion of the teachings of major world religions and how Christians should assess other religious worldviews theologically and apologetically. Descriptively accurate on the nature and teachings of religions as well as philosophically acute.
  68. Nicholi, Armand. The Question of God: C.S. Lewis and Sigmund Freud Debate God, Love, Sex, and the Meaning of Life. New York: Free Press, 2002. Stellar presentation, heavy on pertinent biographical material. Nicholi does not state his conclusions, but Lewis's Christian worldview and life is seen as more winsome than Freud's atheism. See my web page for a short review of this book (originally published in The Denver Post): http://www.gospelcom.net/ivpress/groothuis/pubs-DG/review-nicholi.pdf. (I)
  69. Pascal, Blaise. The Mind on Fire, ed. James Houston. Minneapolis, MN: Bethany Press. An edited collection of Pascal's works. Excellent introduction by Os Guinness. For the complete Pens�es, see the Penguin edition (1966), edited by A. Krailsheimer. (I)
  70. Phillips, Timothy and Dennis Okholm, eds. Christian Apologetics in the Postmodern World. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1995. Essays are mixed in quality (the Kenneson piece is abysmally atrocious, as I point out in Truth Decay), but all give an understanding of the postmodern challenge. (I)
  71. Plantinga, Alvin. Warranted Christian Belief. Oxford University Press, 2002. Major work defending the "Reformed epistemology" perspective on apologetics. Excellent critiques of the anti-Christian theories of Freud, Marx, postmodernism, etc. I am more skeptical of his positive proposal. Philosophia Christi (available in our library), the journal of the Evangelical Philosophical Society has a book symposium on Warranted Christian Belief (Series 2, Volume 3, Number 2, 2002.) See also my review-article (originally published in Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society) on my web page: http://www.gospelcom.net/ivpress/groothuis/pubs-DG/review-plantinga.pdf. (A)
  72. Ramachandra, Vinoth. Faiths in Conflict: Christian Integrity in a Multicultural World. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1999. (I) Challenges the idea that religious conflict is the major cause of all conflict between cultures.
  73. Schaeffer, Francis A. The God Who is There, 30th anniversary ed. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1998. First published in 1968. A prophetic book that roused many from their anti-apologetics slumbers. Still worth pondering. A pivotal book in my journey into apologetics and Christian witness. (I)
  74. Schaeffer, Francis A. The Collected Works of Francis Schaeffer. Five volumes. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Publishers, 1985. From the late 1960s until his death in 1984, Schaeffer wrote raft of important books covering theology, apologetics, ethics, and cultural criticism-all collected here. These books, while not technical scholarship (and sometimes a bit swashbuckling), influenced scores of young evangelicals-myself included-to apply Christian truth in the world of ideas and culture. Young evangelicals of the 21rst century would do well to read these works as well. (I)
  75. Sheler, Jeffery L. Is the Bible True: How Modern Debates and Discoveries Affirm the Essence of the Scriptures. New York: HarperSanFrancisco, 1999. A religion journalist from US News and World Report investigates the reliability of both Testaments. Basic, but helpful. (B)
  76. Sire, James W. The Universe Next Door, 3rd edition. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1997. A model work on world view comparisons. Very well written with many illustrations from literature. A durable and outstanding work. (I)
  77. Sire, James W. Why Should Anyone Believe Anything at All? Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1994. A readable case for Christianity, emphasizing the identity of Jesus. (I)
  78. Sire, James W. Habits of the Mind. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2000. A wonderful book on how a Christian ought to develop the life of the mind. (I)/(A)
  79. Sproul, R.C. Not a Chance: The Myth of Chance in Modern Science and Cosmology. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1994. An able philosophical critique of the metaphysical status of chance in contemporary naturalism. (I)
  80. Strobel, Lee. The Case for Christ. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1998. Strobel takes a journalistic approach by interviewing experts-such as Craig Blomberg, William Lane Craig, and J.P. Moreland-on the historicity and identity of Jesus. The result is an introductory survey of the case for the reliability of the NT and the deity of Christ. For the more developed apologetic arguments, read the people Strobel interviews. (B)
  81. Strobel, Lee. The Case for Faith. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2000. This follow up to The Case for Christ uses the same form of interviewing Christian experts-such as Peter Kreeft, Norman Geisler, and Ravi Zacharias-on apologetic questions. This time objections to faith are in view, such a the problem of evil and evolution. (B)
  82. Usry, Glen and Craig S. Keener. Black Man's Religion: Can Christianity be Afrocentric? Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1996. An apologetic dealing with key concerns of the African American community. (I)
  83. Van Voorst, Robert E. Jesus Outside the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2000. Probably the best contemporary source on this subject. (I)/(A)

II. RECOMMENDED BOOKS RELATED TO RELIGIOUS PLURALISM AND WORLD RELIGIONS

  1. Adler, Mortimer. Truth In Religion. New York: MacMillan, 1990. Argues that religions teach different things and thus cannot all be true. (I)
  2. Aldridge, Alan. Religion in the Contemporary World: A Sociological Introduction. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2000. (I)
  3. Anderson, Norman. Christianity and World Religions: The Challenge of Pluralism. Downers Grove: IL: InterVarsity, 1985. (I)
  4. Berger, Peter L., ed. The Desecularization of the World: Resurgent Religion and World Politics. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1999. Challenges the idea that the modern world is becoming increasingly secular in accordance with sociological forces. (I)
  5. Clark, Andrew and Bruce Winter. One God, One Lord: Christianity in a World of Religious Pluralism. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1992. Essays by Richard Hess and Bruce Demarest, of Denver Seminary. (I)
  6. Corduan, Winfried. Mysticism: An Evangelical Option? Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1991. (I)
  7. Cox, Harvey. Fire From Heaven: The Rise of Pentecostal Spirituality and the Reshaping of Religion in the Twenty-first Century. Reading, M: Addison-Wesley, 1995. Cox changes his tune from hailing the "secular city" to appreciating global Pentecostalism (but still from a theologically liberal mindset). Compare this book to Philip Jenkins, The Next Christendom. (I)
  8. Crockett, William and James Sigountos, eds. Through No Fault of Their Own: The Fate of Those Who Have Never Heard. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1991. (I)
  9. Edwards, Paul. Reincarnation: A Critical Examination. New York: Prometheus Books, 1996. Edwards is an atheist, so some of his arguments against reincarnation (such as, the mind cannot exist apart from the body) also cut against Christian beliefs in the afterlife. Nevertheless, the arguments specifically against karma and previous lives are applicable to Christian apologetics. (I)
  10. Erickson, Millard. How Shall They Be Saved? The Destiny of Those Who Do Not Hear of Jesus. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1996. (I)
  11. Fernando, Ajith. The Supremacy of Christ. Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 1995. (B)/(I) Excellent defense of Jesus as Lord, based on John 14:6.
  12. Fernando, Ajith. Sharing the Truth in Love. Discovery House, 2001. Helpful update of his earlier book, The Christian Attitude Towards World Religions (Tyndale, 1987). (B)/(I)
  13. Griffiths, Paul, ed. Christianity Through Non-Christian Eyes. Orbis, 1990. (I)
  14. Griffiths, Paul. An Apology for Apologetics. Orbis, 1991. (I) Argues that inter-religious apologetics is proper and fruitful-an unpopular view in the world of Religious Studies.
  15. Groothuis, Douglas. Unmasking the New Age InterVarsity Press, 1986. (I)
  16. Groothuis, Douglas. Are All Religions One? InterVarsity Press, 1996. Booklet comparing Christianity, Islam, and nondualistic Hinduism. (I)
  17. Groothuis, Douglas. Confronting the New Age. InterVarsity Press, 1988. (I)
  18. Gruzalski, Bart. On The Buddha. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Leaning, 2000. By a Buddhist who approaches the subject philosophically. (I)
  19. Halverson, Dean, ed. Compact Guide to World Religions. Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers, 1996. Excellent introductory exposition and apologetic engagement on major religions. (B)
  20. Hackett, Stuart. Oriental Philosophy: A Westerner's Guide to Eastern Thought. Madison, WI: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1979. Excellent philosophical treatment. (A)
  21. Jenkins, Philip. The Next Christendom. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Argues that Christianity is growing most rapidly in third world contexts, and is taking on new non-Western forms. Also refutes the notion that Christian growth outside of the West has usually been imposed upon unwilling cultures. Compare this book to the earlier Fire From Heaven by Harvey Cox. (I)
  22. Johnson, David L. A Reasoned Look at Asian Religions. Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House, 1985. Good expository and apologetic material. (I)
  23. Kaufmann, Walter. Religion in Four Dimensions: Existential, Aesthetic, Historical, Comparative. New York: Reader's Digest Press, 1976. A fascinating book filled with Kaufmann's photographs, poems, and atheistic musings on religion. (I)
  24. Mangalwadi, Vishal. The World of Gurus. Chicago: Cornerstone Press, 1992. (I)
  25. Netland, Harold. Dissonant Voices. Regent Press, 1998; orig. pub. Eerdmans, 1991. Probably the best and most thorough evangelical treatment of the subject of religious pluralism. Moderately difficult but well-written and lucid. (I)
  26. Netland, Harold. Encountering Religious Pluralism. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2001. Elaborates and further develops themes from Dissonant Voices, but also contains new material on modernity, postmodernity, and other issues. Clearly written and penetrating. (I)
  27. Nash, Ronald. Is Jesus the Only Savior? Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1994. Good critique of John Hick and a defense of exclusivism. (I)
  28. Okholm, Dennis L. and Timothy Phillips, editors, Salvation: Four Views. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1995. Four authors debate the proper approach to non-Christian religions. (I)
  29. Smart, Ninian. Worldviews: Crosscultural Explorations of Human Beliefs, 2nd ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1995. Explores the various dimensions of religions with a philosophical awareness.
  30. Stackhouse, John Jr., ed. No Other Gods Before Me? Evangelicals and the Challenge of World Religions. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001. Hexam and Mouw essays are particularly good.
  31. Yandell, Keith. The Epistemology of Religious Experience. Cambridge, 1993. Philosophical assessment of religious experience claims. (A)
  32. Yandell, Keith, Philosophy of Religion. Routledge, 1999. Strong analytic approach with an equally strong emphasis on comparative religious philosophy. (I)/(A)

III. RECOMMENDED BOOKS ON NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS

  1. Ankerberg, John and John Weldon. Encyclopedia of New Age Beliefs. Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 1996. Quite thorough and generally on track. Probably a bit too negative on alternative medicine. Weldon is the primary author. (B)
  2. Bowman, Robert. Orthodoxy and Heresy: A Biblical Guide to Doctrinal Discernment. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1992. Well-informed and clearly written guide to biblical thinking about theologically errant groups. (B)/(I)
  3. Clark, David and Norman Geisler. Apologetics for the New Age. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1990. Sadly out of print. Very thorough and philosophical. (I)/(A)
  4. Chandler, Russell. Understanding the New Age, 1988. Christian journalist looks at the New Age movement. (B)
  5. Edwards, Paul. Reincarnation: A Critical Examination. New York: Prometheus Press, 1996. A secular critique with many good logical points. (I)
  6. Groothuis, Douglas. Unmasking the New Age. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1986. One of the first worldview analyses of the New Age movement from an evangelical perspective. (I)
  7. Groothuis, Douglas. Confronting the New Age. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1988. (I) Oriented toward apologetic engagement and social action. (I)
  8. Groothuis, Douglas. Christianity That Counts. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1995. Collection of essays, many of which address New Age concerns. (B)/(I)
  9. Groothuis, Douglas. Are All Religions One (booklet). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1996. Compares Christianity, Islam, and Nondualistic Hinduism. (I)
  10. Guinness, Os. The Dust of Death, revised ed. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Publishers, 1994. Still the best assessment of the counterculture, including its embrace of Eastern religion and occultism. (I)
  11. Heelas, Paul. The New Age Movement. Blackwell, 1996. Scholarly, sociological treatment. (I)
  12. Jenkins, Philip. Hidden Gospels: How the Search for Jesus Lost Its Way. New York: Oxford, 2001. Critique of exotic reconstructions-often New Age in orientation-of Jesus based on very liberal scholarship. (I)
  13. Martin, Walter R. Kingdom of the Cults, revised ed. Hank Hanegraaff, editor. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1997. Revision of a classic work after the author's death in 1989. Most of the new work is not done by Hanegraaff. (B)/(I)
  14. Miller, Elliot. A Crash Course on the New Age. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1989. Excellent overview. (I)
  15. Newport, John. The New Age Movement and the Biblical Worldview. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1998. Compendium of materials on just about every aspect of the New Age movement. Little new research. (I)
  16. North, Gary. Unholy Spirits. Institute of Christian Economics, 1988. Emphasizes worldview critique. (I)
  17. Partridge, Christopher and Douglas Groothuis, eds. Dictionary of Contemporary Religion in the Western World. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2002 (March). Features many articles on new religious movements, such as my entry "New Age Spiritualities." (I)
  18. Sire, James. The Universe Next Door, 3rd ed. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1997. Excellent chapters on Eastern pantheistic monism and New Age thought. (I)
  19. Sire, James. Scripture Twisting: Twenty Ways Cults Misinterpret the Bible. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1980. (I)
  20. Strohmer, Charles. The Gospel and the New Spirituality. Nashville: Thomas Nelson. Excellent on how to communicate the Gospel to New Age people. (B)

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